Symptoms of maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca, damage on leaves: (A) characteristic “window panes,” (B) shot holes where tissue has been eaten away, and (D) dead
heart. Symptoms of damage to stems and cobs: (C) galleries filled with frass, (E) cobs showing frass, and (F) deposits and empty grains.
The following measures are recommended to fight against the disease: early planting, rotation of crops, pile up the stems in compost or apply Dursban 48%.1, 5l/Ha or beta-cyfluthrine 2,5% in 10 l of water /acre.
2. Maize streak virus; this disease
is transmitted by an insect called Cicadulina rubila. The disease is noticed by visible traces on leaves. The virus causes a white to yellowish streaking on the leaves. The streaks are very narrow, more or less broken and run parallel along the leaves. Eventually the leaves turn yellow with long lines of green patches. Plants infected at early stage usually do not produce any cobs.
Symptoms of Maize Streak Virus
To fighting against the disease, it is recommended to early plant the entire field, pull up possible infected seedlings, which could transmit the disease.
3. Leaf spots: this disease is transmitted by a fungus called “Helmnthosporium turcicum “. This disease attacks the leaves of corn and it is seen by many large oval spots on them. It is frequent during rainy seasons
Symptoms of maize leaf spots
The following measure fight against the disease: early planting using resistant varieties and treated with Thiran and Benomyl before planting. It is recommended to compost the stems away from the field.
4. Fall Army worm
Fall armyworm (FAW) - Spodoptera frugiperda, is a pest that can cause significant damage and crop yield losses, if not well managed. Maize is its preferred host and a major staple crop for smallholders. In addition to maize, the pest has also been detected on an increasing number of other crops (e.g., sorghum and sugarcane).
Fall Armyworms and their damage on maize leaves Fall Armyworm with “Y”shape between eyes
5. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease
Maize lethal necrosis disease is caused by co-infection of maize by Maize chlorotic mottle virus (Machlomovirus: Tombusviridae) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (Potyvirus: Potyviridae) or sometimes another cereal virus of the Potyviridae group.
Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) causes a variety of symptoms in maize depending upon genotype, age of infection and environmental conditions. They range from a relatively mild chlorotic mottle to severe stunting, leaf necrosis, premature plant death, shortened male inflorescences with few spikes, and/or shortened, malformed, partially filled ears (Castillo and Herbert, 1974; Castillo Loayza, 1977; Niblett and Caflin, 1978; Uyemoto et al., 1981).
Symptoms of MLN disease
Prevention and Control